Moni, Meining na independens blong ol papa graun stap klostu

Wanem samting kamap bihain long maining emi klia. Ol gutpla na nogutpla samting wantaim yumi save lukim. Long Western Australia nau mipla lukim displa bikpela kampani bilong maining ibin pairap na nau I wok long do gaun. Na long PNG mipla lukim ol moni igo ovasis na ol pipia blong Porgera na Ok Tedi go daun lo liklik wara blong peles.

Igat plenty ol arapela samting save kamap bihain long divelopmen, olsem trabel blong femli-, femli pait, kros na sik AIDs, displa kain samting save kamap wantaim maining. Tasol sampla samting stap ananit long ol displa kain hevi i kamap bihain long maining, na igat planti samting mo I save bagarapim astingting blong ol kain senis olsem, na ol displa kain samting isave kamap wantaim nogat lukasave, hau na ol displa kain samting isave bagarapim na brukim gutpla wok bung blong kominity na graup. We mining olsem, divelopmin save kisim nupla pasin ikam wantaim em, na displa pasin em i mekim mipla nogat powa long komuniti, we ol lain peles no stap bos yet.   Plenti ol i tok olsem divelopmen emi sapos long halivim ol lain long ples, tasol mipla save olsem developmen save rausim powa blong ol ples lain tu.

Wanpla waitskin anthropologist blong Raikos, husat wok long Frens na stap long Western Australia nau, Professor James Leach, I raitim tupla stori. Emi stori blong ol lain Reite long Raikos Madang, na displa tupla stori I tokaut long au ol lain long ples I stap, tumbuna graun blong ol, ol samting blong ol na developmen.

Displa pepa emi bai toksave long displa tuple pepa blong Professor Leach. Tasol mi nonap givim ful stori long Reite peles, bikos mi no bin stap tripla yia long Reite olsem Professor Leach. Mi laik toksave long displa efek istap long maining na divelopmen long ol local komuniti. Interes blong mi emi painim rot long kirapim komuniti hapsait ol main blong PNG moabeta .

Reite peles stap tuple ten kilometres long displa processing plant blong Kurumbukari main. Na displa plant istap long Basamuk Bay, na igat paiplain igat 130 km igo antap long mauntain, na save kisim olgeta rabis blong main igo aut long solwara 150 meter na lusim displa pipia ananit long Basamuk Bay igo daun 1500 meter.

Tariak waering bark fibre skirt (naie) - James Leach

Tariak waering bark fibre skirt (naie) – James Leach

Olgeta tingting na stori blong ol Reite stap long ol purpur bilong ol. Ol purpur igat mak bilong wan wan clan na femli blong wanwan peles. Displa piksa igat mak bilong Tupon sarrung, mining wara kalap, na ol mak bilong em bungim mak bilong wara kalap na denis bilong man—olsem yu lukim purpur na bai yu kisim save long man na graun stap wantaim. Man na graun stap wantaim long tingting bilong ol Reite.

Professor Leach save toktok long displa samting, long ol manmeri husat makim graun, na makim graun save senis o muv nabaut—graun igat laif olosem man. Tokpiksa olosem gran na man na femli na kastom na lo bilo peles—ologeta stap long mak blong purpur bilong yu. Leach save tok ol man save muv nabaut olosem gran na wara kalap…tasol emi holim powa tu.

Taim Leach save tok long ‘taim blong taro na yam’na ‘taim bilong moni’ bai you kisim save long bikpla senis I kamap pinis. Olosem plenty opl arapela peles long PNG, Reite save kaikai taro, banana, kaukau sak sak na yam. Tasol olosem purpur emi no klos nating, emi kastom. Na taro emi no kaikai nating, emi gat mining. Igat mining bilong hau ol manmeri save marit, save stap wantaim, save stap insait long komuniti. Igat lo blong plantim taro, na rausim taro, lo ilong wanwan femli, na wanpela stori blong taro oli kolim Samat Matakaring Patuki.

Nau yumi stap long ‘taim bilong moni’ na olgeta manmeri stap hangre long kisim divelopmen na kisim moni. Taim bilong twenty toea no gat mining, nogat powa long baiam samting. Nau ol manmeri save harim displa tok blong salim graun na kisim moni, long mekim garun kamap moni. Displa kain tingting save kamap lo main, tasol nogat divelopmen kamap wantaim. Ol manmeri save plantim plenty kumu, na makitim kumu moa yet, na apim prais bilong kumu lo salim long main—oli tok taim blong moni-sense tasol, traim tasol.

Tasol ‘taim bilong moni’save kilim ‘taim blong yam na taro.’Isi isi save kilim displa ‘subsistens base’(ol save kolim) blong kumuniti. Taim ol komuniti save hangre long kisim moni, oli save stap yet long gaden—long ‘subsistens base’ kaikai. Sinduan blong ol stap long gaden na bus na lukautim pik na ol displa samting. Professor Leach tok Reite bai no inap stap sapos pasin bilong ‘subsistens base’bagarap olgeta. Olgeta samting bilong sinfaun blong ol depen tasol long gaden, na exchange, na kastom stap baksait long olgeta displa.

Displa wari blong taim bilong moni emi no tokpiksa tasol. Emi samting tru long grain na laif. Taim yu katim bush gen na gen to wokim gaden bai yu lusim powa blong kirapim kaikai long graun—graun bai kirapim liklik na likilik moa na olsem. Olsem Leach save tok divelopmin bilong taim bilong moni ino ‘sustainable’—mining olsem behain you wokim gaden bai no inap kamap. Risos blo yu bai pinis. Na sapos yu lusim gaden, bai yu lusim olgeta liklik samting stap insaid long sinduan blong yu.

Mipla no tok komplein long ol komuniti save paingin moni o deivelopmin. Mipla toksave tasol long wanem samting bai kamap bihain—no ol displa projek or plan bai no inap toksave long yu. Sapos wanpla projek save kisim graun bilong yu, nay u muv, o sapos emi kapsaitim pipia long wara bilong yu—nau bai yu filim pen hariap. Tasol sapos yu stap olsem taim bipo na kamap hangri long moni na salim ol kumul long graun, binhain bai yu bagarapim sindaun blong yu tu. Yupla husait painim gutpla laif bai no inap kisim.

Yu ken lukim bus taim yu kliarim ol gaden o salim graun long narapela. Tasol olgeta liklik sensis ikamap long tingting blo yu ino klia tumas, tasol tu ino isi. Displa tokpiksa long purpur na topksave long taro bai bagarap olgeta. Kastom bai bagarap. Emi olosem olgeta samting stap long bilum, na yu pulim tred bilong bilum. Bihain bai yu lusim olgeta samting. Divelopmen na taim blo moni save wokim displa kaim bagarap we yu no inap klia tumas, tasol bihain bai yu kisim pen. Yumi tok Graun I Laif. Long PNG igat mining moa yet long ol arapela kantri.

Leach toksave long wanpla bikpla difrens namel ol tingting bilong ovasis na ol blong PNG. Taim yumi muv igo long tain blo moni yumi lus tingting long ol arapela mining blo graun, we graun igat laif na emi wankain man na kouniti, igo long narapela kain tingting we ol waitlain save toktok long ‘rait’blong usim na salim graun. Dispela narapela kain tingting save mekim graun kamap samting istap autsait long man na komuniti—samting yu ken baiam na salim. Dispela emi arapela kain tingting ologeta. Lo blong PNG tu luksave long dispel niupela kain tingting taim emi makin wanpela man o meri kamap papa graun—emi no inap tainim taintim tingting tru long peles we oli respektim histori na komuniti nan a we bilong skelim graun bilong femli. Taim bilong moni save sensism olgeta samting.

Taim wanpla projek o divelopmen kamap long peles emi gat wori kamap wantaim. Ol manmeri wori long nogat narapela we long kisim moni olsem oli troimoi han long kainkain tingting long kisim moni. No gat chance long skelim gutpela tingting na nogutpla tingting. Long Taim bipo ol lo blo graun ibin rot blong givim powa long komuniti. Nau long taim blo moni displa lo save rausim powa na making graun kamap samting long baiam na salim tasol.

Nogut yu ting displa tingting blot aim blo moni bai no inap kamap long peles olosem Reite. Em bai kam. Long plenty hap I kam pinis. Dispela sensis ikam bilo mipela no luksave tumas long divelopmin na mining blong em. Taim yumi hariap bihainim rot bilong kisim moni yumi no save long olgeta kastom na tingtitng yumi bai lusim long rot.

Professor Leach save kolim displa sensis wanpela rot bilong lusim powa, lusim control long komuniti. Bilong ol lain peles save kisim displa nupla tingting bilong graun, na displa tinging save kilim ol tingting bilo bipo. Yumi wokim tasol yumi no save displa bi kamap. Emi olsem you making nupla toktok na lus tingting long olgeta toktok na tingting bilo bipo. Sampla oli tok ol tokples blong PNG pulap long tingting bilong kastiom na sapos yumi lus tingting long tokples bai yumi lus tingting bilo kastom. Displa ‘taim bilong moni’na nupla we long lukautim gran emi wankain samting—bilong sapos yu ksisim displa tingting bai yu lus tingting long olgeta arapela. Taim yu bihainim displa nupla tingting bilong Taim Bilong Moni tu bai you lusim powa blong komuniti na lukluk long nasenal govamen na ol kampani lain tasol.

Olgeta komuniti blong PNG save pauingim divelopmin, tasol yumi nogat plenty komuniti igat save long mining bilong displa divelopmin. Oli no gat save long wanem samting bai kamap bihain—plenti ol samting yu bai no inap stopim, em bai kam. Taim yumi tok divelopmin yumi mas sindaun na kisim olgeta toksave stap beksait long wanpla projek. Ol lain blong mining no gat save long autim toksave klia long ol manmeri peles. Yumi mas wokim nau.

Professor Leach emi no birua blong divelopmin. Mi tu nogat birua blong divelopmin. Mipla laik toksave long mining bilong divelopmin na wanem kain efek bai kamap. Ol kamani lain na ol gavman olino save tok aut klia long displa. Tasol ating yumi mas tokaut long efeks na mining blong wanwan projek na tingting stap beksait long em bifo yumi ken kirapim nupla kain divelopmin we igat lews, igat tingting bilong peles, na emi bai no inap kilim kastom bilong bipo. Plenti sensis ikamap yumi no lukim bikos emi stap long tingting long man. Tasol displa nupla tingting bai kilim idai kastom bihain, na yumi mas tokaut klia.

Yupla husat laik painimaut moa yet lo wok blong Professor James Leach, yupla ken sekim displa website http://www.jamesleach.net/index.html

By, Charles Roche; Translation, Nancy Sullivan

Leach, J. (2014). ‘The time of money’: property and sovereignty as alternative narratives of land and value near the Ramu NiCo mining project (Madang, PNG). Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 138-139.

Leach, J. (2011). “Twenty Toea Has No Power Now”: Property, Customary Tenure, and pressure on Land Near the Ramu Nickel Project Area, Madang, Papua New Guinea. Pacific Studies, 34 (2/3 Aug/Dec).